Interoception is the lesser-known, eighth sensory system which receives sensory stimuli throughout the body organs, e.g. heart, bladder, skin, etc. which then tell our brain, "hey, I noticed this scratchy thing is touching me." In turn, the brain regulates our sensory systems while also providing a perceptual sense of how we're feeling, "hey, I feel uncomfortable about this scratchy thing that's still touching me." Thus, we might resolve the stimuli on a neurological level or through our actions, "Prepare the scissors! We're getting rid of some shirt tags!"
tl;dr our body receives signals; we notice the signal; we have some thoughts, feelings, and values about our bodily experience; and we act.
Our brain can pump the brakes and let us know when we're getting uncomfortable before we're too thirsty, too hungry, too in need of a bathroom. Awesome, right? But what if we don't notice the signal? Such a thing can happen and poses a valid challenge to self-regulation.
Who might benefit from interoception-building? People who experience panic disorder, GAD, PTSD, anxiety, eating disorders, MDD, somatic symptom disorders, OCD, Autism spectrum disorder... To list a few or many. In fact, Interception-building can really benefit anyone.
Kelly Mahler, OTR/L developed a helpful framework to build interoceptive awareness for enhanced self-regulation. By using mindfulness practices, such as body scan, she's developed a step-by-step process occupational therapy practioners guide and support self-regulation and growthful behaviors.